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A prefix is a word-part that is added in the beginning of a word.

  • Negative Prefixes

Ø  -un attractive                                unattractive clean                                         unclean comfortable                              uncomfortable complicated                              uncomplicated fortunate                                 unfortunate generous                                   ungenerous grateful                                    ungrateful healthy                                     unhealthy interesting                               uninteresting kind                                          unkind lawful                                       unlawful lucky                                         unlucky pleasant                                    unpleasant real                                          unreal safe                                         unsafe selfish                                      unselfish true                                         untrue Ø  -dis nouns advantage                                 disadvantage belief                                       disbelief comfort                                    discomfort courtesy                                   discourtesy favor                                        disfavor honor                                        dishonor like                                           dislike loyalty                                      disloyalty obedience                                 disobedience pleasure                                   displeasure repair                                       disrepair respect                                    disrespect taste                                        distaste trust                                        distrust use                                           disuse verbs agree                                       disagree allow                                         disallow appear                                      disappear arm                                          disarm assemble                                  disassemble associate                                  disassociate believe                                     disbelieve claim                                         disclaim connect                                     disconnect continue                                    discontinue encourage                                 discourage like                                           dislike locate                                       dislocate obey                                         disobey please                                       displease possess                                    dispossess prove                                        disprove Ø  -in, -im, -il, -ir active                                       inactive capable                                     incapable complete                                   incomplete constant                                   inconstant curious                                     incurious definite                                    indefinite distinct                                    indistinct exact                                        inexact expert                                      inexpert glorious                                    inglorious human                                       inhuman organic                                     inorganic secure                                      insecure visible                                      invisible mature                                        immature moderate                                    immoderate mortal                                         immortal moveable                                     immoveable patient                                       impatient perfect                                       imperfect possible                                      impossible probable                                     improbable proper                                        improper pure                                            impure rational                                     irrational regular                                     irregular religious                                   irreligious responsible                               irresponsible legal                                            illegal licit                                            illicit legible                                        illegible nouns balance                                     imbalance justice                                      injustice Ø  -non alcoholic                                    nonalcoholic cooperation                               noncooperation (no cooperation) political                                    nonpolitical poisonous                                  nonpoisonous stop                                         nonstop violent                                      nonviolent Ø  -mis Verbs behave                                     misbehave direct                                       misdirect inform                                      misinform interpret                                  misinterpret judge                                        misjudge lead                                          mislead place                                        misplace print                                        misprint read                                         misread spell                                         misspell treat                                        mistreat understand                               misunderstand use                                           misuse nouns alliance                                     misalliance behavior                                   misbehavior chance                                      mischance conduct                                     misconduct fit                                            misfit fortune                                     misfortune exercises : using one of the prefixes in this lesson ( un-, dis-, in-, non-, mis-), give the word that opposite in meaning to each of those on the list that follows. 1.     active 2.    belief 3.    believe 4.    attractive 5.    loyal 6.    honest 7.    true 8.    visible 9.    please 10. pleasure 11.  convenient 12. comfort 13. comfortable 14. fortune 15. fortunately



  • Prefix that form verbs

Ø  en-  (em-) able                                          enable bitter                                      embitter body                                         embody camp                                         encamp circle                                        encircle dear                                         endear force                                        enforce large                                        enlarge noble                                        ennoble power                                       empower purple                                       empurple rage                                         enrage rich                                          enrich slave                                         enslave tangle                                       entangle other prefixes with various meanings


prefix meaning examples
ante- before, preceding antedate, antecedent
Anti- against Antiwar, antigovernment
Circum- around circumnavigate
Co- Together, joint Co-author, coeducation
Contra- against contraindicate
Ex- former Ex-member, ex-president
Ex- Out of Export
In- In, into indoors
Inter- between International, interdepartmental
Intra- within Intradepartmental
Mal- Bad, wrong Malfunction, malpractice
Multi- many Multicolored
Poly- many Polyglot
Post- After, later Postwar, postgraduate
Pre- Before, earlier Prewar, prehistory
Pro- In favor of Prowar, proadministration
Re- again Refill, rewrite
Sub- Under, below Subnormal, subhuman
Super- Above, over Superman, supernatural
Trans- Through, across Transcontinental
Mono- Alone, one Monogamy, monolingual
Fore- Before, in front foredoom

Exercises : Give words with the following meaning using prefixes ! 1.     against malaria 2.    below standard 3.    former chairman 4.    do again 5.    between nations 6.    having many wives 7.    speaking many languages 8.    tell something before it happens 9.    faulty formation 10. before wedding

Noun Forming Suffixes

Ø  -tion appreciate                                     appreciation celebrate                                      celebration communicate                                  communication complete                                       completion construct                                      construction constitute                                     constitution contribute                                     contribution concentrate                                   concentration cooperate                                      cooperation create                                           creation decorate                                       decoration delegate                                        delegation estimate                                       estimation execute                                         execution exhibit                                          exhibition graduate                                       graduation federate                                       federation generate                                       generation institute                                       institution instruct                                         instruction legislate                                        legislation motivate                                        motivation react                                             reaction regulate                                        regulation relate                                            relation violate                                           violation Ø  -ation adapt                                            adaptation administer                                     administration condense                                       condensation inspire                                          inspiration occupy                                           occupation reform                                          reformation restore                                         restoration tempt                                            temptation transport                                      transportation Ø  -ition compete                                        competition depose                                          deposition dispose                                          disposition expose                                          exposition propose                                         proposition Ø  -ification amplify                                          amplification beautify                                        beautification certify                                          certification classify                                         classification clarify                                           clarification identify                                         identification notify                                            notification qualify                                           qualification ratify                                            ratification exercises 1.     if they win the game they will celebrate it, and I will come to their … party 2.    the long walk exhausted me. I noticed my … right away. 3.    this is the latest edition of the book. I … it and made some additions from the new materials. 4.    he defined that word for me. And his .. was correct. 5.    your love is my inspiration. Your love … me to make a poem. 6.    you must concentrate to learn English. The result of your… will appear soon. 7.    the new regulation has published. They will … the manufacture of drugs. 8.    Janet is tempted  to lose her weight, she doesn’t yield to the … 9.    we must alter our plans because of the rainy season, I hope the … is okay 10. mom instructed me to study and I obey her … Suffixes That Form Verbs Ø  -ize It combines with many noun and adjective. verb commercial                                         commercialize crystal                                               crystallize economy                                             economize harmony                                             harmonize sympathy                                            sympathize terror                                                terrorize moisture                                            moisturize Ø  -ate captive                                               captivate facility                                               facilitate luxury                                                 luxuriate motive                                                motivate origin                                                 originate Ø  -ify beauty                                               beautify class                                                  classify fort                                                   fortify person                                                personify horror                                                horrify terror                                                terrify exercise : A.   Fill in the blanks with the words chosen from the list.

beautify conflict crystallize digest discharge
dramatize horrify import invigorate rebel

1. We were so upset on hearing  his dreadful stories about the war and I think his story will … you too. 2. The battle of Bharatayuda was a major … in the Mahabharata war. 3. I don’t have time to read your whole letter. My secretary will make a … for me. 4. A famous singer just like Charlie van Houten often tends to … situations in his private live. 5. Young people often go through a period when they … against their parents. 6. This bright sunny day makes John feel like going out and taking exercise.  He says they … him. 7. The streets are very pretty now. The city government has … them by planting trees. 8. If a teacher has served well, he leaves the school services with an honorable … 9. That country imports steel, wheat and manufactured products. What are some of its other …? 10. When the water in a salt solution evaporates, the salt … and remains behind. B.    Fill in the blank with the noun or verb related to the italicized word. 1.     The Sujono have very little money so they practice economy in all their expenditures. They … on their food, clothes and housing. 2.  She sympathized with all of his misfortunes and he was very grateful for her … 3.  We wish to facilitate his business and so we are giving him … 4.  We have divided these butterflies into different classes. Tomorrow we will … others. 5.  The disappearance of Michael Jackson has mystified everyone. His fate is a real …

Suffixes That Form Nouns

Ø  -ness adjective                                            noun aware                                                 awareness loud                                                    loudness sad                                                     sadness ready                                                 readiness serious                                               seriousness sharp                                                 sharpness shy                                                     shyness silly                                                    silliness ugly                                                    ugliness weak                                                  weakness Ø  -ity acid                                                    acidity national                                              nationality secure                                                security sensitive                                            sensitivity fatal                                                  fatality legal                                                   legality personal                                             personality universal                                            universality capable                                              capability possible                                             possibility probable                                            probability Ø  -t  to  -ce abundant                                            abundance convenient                                          convenience evident                                              evidence innocent                                             innocence intelligent                                          intelligence resident                                             residence abundance                            acidity                          brevity evidence                              silliness                        keenness legality                                steepness                     supremacy weakness                             loudness                        mentality sobriety                              captivity                       enormity 1. his manner was very bad, he was rude to others. His … of his behavior offended everyone. 2. the wild bird was caught and put in a cage, but it would not sing in … 3. the country has the strongest navy in the world, and because of his naval …, it was able to build a big empire. 4. the wine is very sour, its … makes it almost unfit to drink. 5. the knife was very sharp. The … of its blade made it easy to use. Suffixes That Form Adjectives and Verbs Ø       -ive verb                               adjective communicate                    communicative compare                          comparative compete                          competitive cooperate                       cooperative decorate                         decorative digest                             digestive form                               formative protect                           protective defend                            defensive exceed                            excessive offend                            offensive respond                           responsive Ø       -able desire                             desirable drink                               drinkable love                                 loveable read                                readable recognize                        recognizable wash                               washable avail                                available depend                            dependable pay                                 payable remark                            remarkable suit                                 suitable value                               valuable Ø       -ible adjective                        meaning comprehensible               capable of being understood edible                             capable of being eaten credible                          capable of being believed divisible                          capable of being divided feasible                          capable of being done legible                            capable of being read visible                             capable of being seen Ø       -ant  and  -ent depend                            dependent differ                             different please                             pleasant suffice                            sufficient abound                            abundant defy                                defiant Ø       -en  (to make / become ) adjective                        verb black                               blacken dark                                darken fast                                fasten moist                              moisten sharp                              sharpen quick                               quicken attainable                                 clarify                        competitive excessive                                 exhaustive                 immortalize moisten                                    relative                      sufficient

  1. these instructions are not clear. Paijo can … them for us.
  2. a reasonable profit is good , but I think 75% is …
  3. Leonardo da Vinci tried to … the beauty of Mona Lisa
  4. the students in that class are always struggling to see who can get the best  grade. It is a very   … class.
  5. I bought a small turkey for six guests. I hope it will be …

Suffixes That Form Adjectives


Ø  -al, -ial noun                                                adjective agriculture                                           agricultural bride                                                    bridal globe                                                    … emotion                                                … incident                                                … commerce                                             … instrument                                            … magic                                                    … structure                                             … universe                                               … president                                             presidential resident                                               … province                                               … except :   intellect-intellectual         spirit-spiritual Ø  -ic, -ical (have almost the same meaning) poetic                                                   poetical economic                                               … politic                                                   … Ø  Adjectives of nationality ü  -(i) an Asia                                                 Asian Australia                                         Australian Russia                                              Russian Belgium                                            Belgian Iran Iranian Jordan Jordanian Italy Italian Germany                                          German Mexico                                             Mexican Tibet                                               Tibetan ü  -ish Place-name                                  adjective                             noun Britain                                        British                                 Briton, British Denmark                                     Danish                                 Dane Finland                                        Finnish                                 Finn Ireland                                       Irish                                   Irishman, woman Spain                                          Spanish                                Spaniard Sweden                                       Swedish                               Swede Turkey                                        Turkish                                Turk Scotland                                      Scottish                              Scot Poland                                         Polish                                   Pole Sometimes the adjective is derived from the  noun naming a member of a nation or social group ; noun                                    adjective Frank                                   Frankish Jew                                     Jewish Kurd                                    Kurdish ü  -ese Burma                                    Burmese China                                      Chinese Congo                                     Congolese Japan                                     Japanese Lebanon                                  Lebanese Portugal                                 Portuguese Vietnam                                  Vietnamese ü  -ic Arab                                      Arabic Iceland                                   Icelandic ü  -i Iraq                                       Iraqi Israel                                    Israeli Somalia                                  Somali Kuwait                                    Kuwaiti Yemen                                    Yemeni ü  Irregular forms country name                   adjective                      noun of nationality Cyprus                            Cypriot                         Cypriot Czechoslovakia                Czechoslovakian            Czechoslovakian Czech                           Czech France                            French                          Frenchman, woman Greece                            Greek                           Greek Holland                            Dutch                           Dutchman, woman Laos                                Lao, Laotian                  Lao, Laotian Thailand                          Thai                             Thai Switzerland                    Swiss                           Swiss The Philippines                Philippine                      Filipino economic 1. the president has many … matters to consider this session economical tragic 2. the death of the president was the most … even of the year tragical logic 3. the boy was lying, his explanation wasn’t … logical statistic 4. … evidence is not always convincing. statistical elliptic 5. planets follow … orbits around the sun. elliptical fill in the blanks in the pattern sentences, using each of the countries named bellow. Example : America That man is from …                                      that man is from America He’s an …                                                     he’s an American 1.     Sweden 2.    Egypt 3.    Spain 4.    Mexico 5.    argentine

MORE Suffixes That Form Adjectives


  • -y

it is added to  a great many nouns  and verbs  of one syllable. noun adjective boss                                                                                         bossy breeze                                                                                       breezy chill                                                                                           chilly foam                                                                                         foamy lump                                                                                         lumpy mist                                                                                          misty mood                                                                                        moody frost                                                                                         frosty pearl                                                                                         pearly salt                                                                                           salty scare                                                                                        scary swamp                                                                                      swampy worm                                                                                        wormy rock                                                                                          rocky pepper                                                                                      peppery

  • -ary

discipline                                                                                   disciplinary fragment                                                                                   fragmentary legend                                                                                       legendary planet                                                                                        planetary prime                                                                                        primary vision                                                                                        visionary

  • -ed

forest                                                                                        forested point                                                                                         pointed talent                                                                                        talented

  • -ly

noun                                                                                         adjective brother                                                                                      brotherly death                                                                                        deathly friend                                                                                        friendly ghost                                                                                        ghostly father                                                                                        fatherly mother                                                                                      motherly sister                                                                                        sisterly woman                                                                                      womanly world                                                                                        worldly the following words in –ly are used as both adjectives and adverbs. noun                                                                                         adjective or adverb hour                                                                                          hourly day                                                                                           daily week                                                                                         weekly moth                                                                                         monthly year                                                                                          yearly

  • -ar

circle                                                                                        circular consul                                                                                       consular muscle                                                                                      muscular tube                                                                                          tubular globe                                                                                         globular molecule                                                                                    molecular

  • -full   and  -less

noun                                                     -ful adjective                                                  -less adjective care                                                      careful                                                          careless cheer                                                    cheerful                                                         cheerless pain                                                      painful                                                           painless mercy                                                   merciful                                                         merciless use                                                       useful                                                            useless end                                                       –                                                                   endless tree                                                      –                                                                   treeless star                                                      –                                                                   starless wind                                                      –                                                                   windless point                                                     –                                                                   pointless dread                                                    dreadful                                                         – hate                                                      hateful                                                           – resource                                               resourceful                                                    –

  • -ous

adventure                                                                                  adventurous ceremony                                                                                  ceremonious danger                                                                                      dangerous fury                                                                                           furious glory                                                                                         glorious humor                                                                                       humorous marvel                                                                                       marvelous monster                                                                                    monstrous odor                                                                                          odorous nerve                                                                                        nervous luxury                                                                                        luxurious grace                                                                                        gracious industry                                                                                     industrious

  • -ic

angel                                                                                         angelic economy                                                                                    economic organ                                                                                        organic romance                                                                                    romantic harmony                                                                                    harmonic comedy                                                                                     comic energy                                                                                       energetic tragedy                                                                                      tragic science                                                                                     scientific democracy                                                                                 democratic

  • -ish

boy                                                                                           boyish child                                                                                          childish fool                                                                                           foolish girl                                                                                            girlish style                                                                                          stylish monk                                                                                         monkish black                                                                                         blackish blue                                                                                          bluish yellow                                                                                        yellowish red                                                                                           reddish A.pointless

  1. a pencil without a point
  2. an action that is useless
  3. a thing that must be pointed out


  1. a person who is happy and always make others happy
  2. a room that is pleasant to be
  3. a crowd that cheers a lot

C. fearful

  1. a thing that is frightening
  2. a person who is afraid
  3. something that is extreme, excessive

D. breathless

  1. somebody who has difficulty in breathing
  2. somebody who is breathing rapidly
  3. something that is so quite you could hear people breathless

fearless                                             capacious                                          careless circuitous                                          faithless                                            characteristic rebellious                                           pointless                                            cheerful painless                                             disgraceful                                         endless useful

  1. it’s ….. of that breed of dog to have short legs and long ears.
  2. Painem seems to get tired. His energy is …
  3. it’s …. to attempt to carry water in a basket
  4. it’s … for a large city not to have good school for its children.
  5. “this examination is quite … “, said Sastro. “You won’t feel a thing”.


  1. New Year’s Eve celebration
    On New Year’s Eve 2015, my big family and I celebrated New Year’s Eve together. We held a big dinner planned by my father and my uncle in my house. Before the celebration, we all prepared what was needed such as ingredients of food, fireworks, trumpet, and sound system.

    The weather on the day was not so bright. Drizzling rain which flushed the earth since the morning did want to not stop. But it did not dampen our spirits. My cousin and I went to the market to buy fireworks. We bought quite a lot of fireworks on that day to enliven our big event. After getting fireworks, we helped my father and uncle to prepare karaoke appliance and sound system at home, while my mother and aunt prepared chicken meat and seasoning to be in roast tonight
    Precisely at 18.00 everything we need was ready. We were just waiting for 22.00 o’clock. We deliberately postponed the dinner time so that we could enjoy the food we made later. While we were waiting, I and my big family joked and laughed together in the living room. We also did karaoke together; each of us had to sing a song. My uncle who was good in singing did not want to miss to entertain us. At 22:00 we started to prepare the food. My father, uncle, cousin and I prepared the chicken meat to be grilled, while my mother, aunt and sister prepared rice, side dishes and drinks. After the chicken meat was cooked, we ate together while waiting at 12.00. We ate with gusto at that time and we fell so happy to eat together.

    At 11:45 we started to prepare the fireworks to be burned. After the time was closed to 12.o’clock, we counted down to set off fireworks. We immediately set off fireworks right along with the turn of the year. We also blew the trumpet to add to the excitement of the evening. It’s amazing to see the fireworks show together with my big family. I hope we can hold this event again next year.

  2. Wrong Person

    My story began when I was studying in primary school precisely in grade 6. At that momWrong Person

    My story began when I was studying in primary school precisely in grade 6. At that moment I was an excellent student for 5 years. I always got rank 1. But my luck changed when a new girl moved to my school. Her name was Dhila Shahida. We called her Dhila. She was quiet, diligent and clever. Even later I had to admit that she was smarter than me.

    Time ran quickly, and the final exam came. It was my favorite moment, because I was sure that I would get the highest score again. However, Dhila’s score was straight above me. I was really upset. Since then I felt she’s irritating me, but on the one hand, I felt anxious about her. Then suddenly we began to care each other. Incidentally our house was not too far away. I had a crush on her, dude

    2 years had passed, now we’ve never met again. We continued our study in a different school. One day, I saw her in my school canteen. She enclosed her elementary school diploma, and took a rest in my school canteen. I was very happy to see her. We talked about the past. Until I remembered that I had to return my friend’s book in another class room. After telling her, I left her for a while. I told her I would be back soon after returning it.

    I went back to the canteen, I saw Dhila was still there. Seeing her hair loose, I held her hair and tied it directly while saying, “Hey Dhil, why do not you tie up your hair? Let me braid it, Ok? “. Suddenly she turned and looked at me.

    Oh my God, she’s not Dhila, but someone whose hair, clothes were similar to Dhila’s. I was so ashamed. I immediately apologized and left her while my friends was laughing at my foolish face. AS you know, Dhila was my soul mate when I was in elementary school. Dhila, I miss you.

  3. my experience of life experiences thatcannot be overlooked is when me and my family go sightseeing on the beach. that time I was 6 years old when I anymore fun play near my beach under water by water, I lost I don’t know what to do because I also can’t swim and my family did not know of it. Fortunately there is a father who saw me sink directly helped me. I could hardly breathe under water by luckily I can still be happy. that’s been my experience that I can’t forget thanks.

  4. Wrong Guy
    Every time I remember this, I always laugh. It was so embarrassing moment. My friends were laughing all day because of this incident. On the same day I got the nickname as Mr. clumsy.

    At that time I was 8 years old. My friends and I were playing on the playground. We played a game of hide and seek. We played happily. Until, it was my turned to look for them. I was looking for them one by one and managed to find it. However, one of my friend named Hadi was very clever in hiding. I could not find him. Then I kept looking for him. I remembered that Hadi wearing a red shirt and blue pants. As I passed the elephant statue in the park, I saw a kid wearing a red shirt and blue pants. Without thinking, I immediately approached him. After getting close, I pulled him and took him to my friends. I wanted to tell them that I had managed to find him. However, I became silent, when I saw Hadi was near my friends. He greeted me “hey why did not you find me?” I was confused. Then I saw my friends laugh. Then I looked to the children who I drag from near the elephant statue. I was surprised that it was not Hadi but he was someone else wearing the same clothes.

    The boy looked at me with disgust. All of my friends there were laughing at me. I was embarrassed. I wanted to run out of there. Finally, I apologized to the boy which I had been pulled. Since then I was always called as Mr. Clumsy by my friend.

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