Posted by: ananda29 | July 27, 2010

Ananda English Corner

This article is good for you all,  just read it  .. may be one day you need it.

It’s going to sharpen your English skill too…….

good luck !!



Function Words


That is a word that doesn’t belong to one of the four major parts of speech in English. ( noun, verb, adjective, adverb )
Among the function words are : articles, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns, noun determiners, substitute nouns and other specialized expressions.

Articles
This is the traditional terms of a, an and the

Auxiliary Verbs
These are the “helping” verbs that can combined with various parts of other verbs to make verb phrases. The most common are : be, have and do. In addition we have the modals : can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would as well as dare and need under certain conditions. The phrases ought to, used to, and (be) supposed to are included because they resemble modals, in spite of the fact that, unlike ordinary modals, they include the word to.

Conjunctions
Conjunctions join various parts of the sentence together. There two kinds : coordinating and subordinating.
(a) coordinating conjunctions
these join nouns to nouns, verbs to verbs, adjectives to adjectives, and so on. They are and, but, (either….)or and (neither….)nor
(b) subordinating conjunctions
these are the words that introduce adjectival and adverbial clauses, subjects and verbs, but they can’t stand alone as independent sentences. They are :
after lest when
although though where
because till while
before unless why
if until

Wh-questions how, who, whom, what, which, when, why and where also introduce subordinate clauses of a special type, usually called indirect questions.
The relative pronoun who, whom, which, whose and that introduce subordinate clauses of another type, usually called relative clauses, which modify nouns.

Preposition
These make up an extremely important class of function words. They are :
About but outside
Above during over
Across except since
After for through
Against from throughout
Along in to
Among inside toward
Around into under
As like underneath
At of until
Before off up
Behind on upon
Below onto with
Beside out within
Between down without
Beyond
Remember that most of these words may also function as adverbs, if no noun follows.

Pronouns
These words take the place of nouns. The meaning they have depend on the noun they replace, called the antecedent.
ENGLISH PRONOUNS
person singular plural
S O Possessive S O Possessive
1st 2nd 1st 2nd
1st I me my mine we us our ours
2nd you your yours same as singular
3rd -M he him his they them their theirs
3rd -F she her hers
3rd -N it its

Many other words traditionally called pronouns will be found under the heading Substitute Nouns.

Noun Determiners
These are the expressions that signal the presence – of a following noun. If there is no noun following, then the expression itself functions as a noun – a substitute noun.
Noun determiners classified according to the type of noun
that may follow
any kind of noun any singular noun singular countable nouns mass
nouns mass nouns or plural countable nouns Plural
nouns
the
my
your
his
her
its
our
their
which
what
whose
whatever
whichever
no
this
that a(n)
each
every
either
neither
one
another
many a much
(a) little
a good deal of
a great deal of
some
any
more
most
all (the)
a lot of
lots of
other
enough
these
those
many
(a) few
several
two, three, etc
both (the)

A mass noun is one that is not used in the plural except under special circumstances. It is one that names a substance or a quality , that in English at least, is not counted but measured : salt, sugar, rice, water, kindness.
This distinction must be kept in mind in studying the above table of noun-determiners.

Substitute Nouns
These expressions resemble the pronouns in replace a noun in a context but for grammatical reasons it is convenient to separate them from the pronouns.
all most none
another much one, two (three, etc)
any (the) least (the) other
both less others
either (a) little several
enough (a) lot some
(a) few lots such
(a good) deal many that/those
(a great) deal more this/these

Intensifiers
These are traditionally called adverbs, but they behave in special ways and are better treated separately. They are :
awfully hardly quite
enough just rather
fairly pretty really
right scarcely somewhat
terribly too

Special Expressions
(i) the ‘indefinite pronouns’ these are the combinations of any, every, no and
some with body, one and thing: anybody, anyone, anything , everybody,
nobody, nothing, etc.
(ii) the ‘indefinite adverbs’ : anyhow, anywhere, somehow, etc
(iii) question words : when, where, what, why, who, whose, whom, how, and which
(iv) the -ever words : whatever, whenever, wherever, etc
(v) the reflexive pronouns : myself, yourself, themselves etc
(vi) miscellaneous : no, ok, please, yes

Exercises
A. Find five nouns that can be used in each blank in the following sentences.
1. This …… is very good
2. I need some more ….
3. Give me another ….
4. There are several …. In the bathroom
5. He has lots of ….

B. Find at least two noun determiners or combinations that make correct sentences.
1. This is …… house
2. He has …. friends
3. I need …. coat
4. ……. people like to travel
C. Complete these sentences using adjectives ( and other words if necessary).
Examples ; fresh, good, hard, soft, etc
1. This bread is ….
2. This bread is too ….
3. This bread is much …. than that
4. This bread is not ….
5. This bread is rather….

D. Change the italicized nouns or noun phrases to pronouns in these sentences
1. Mr. Wilson spoke to John
2. The book is John’s
3. John and I found the money
4. Helen saw Mrs. White’s sister
5. Where’s the cat ?
6. The scissor are not sharp enough
7. Put your shoe on
8. The boy was proud of his new bicycle

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Responses

  1. Daily Activity

    I want to tell about my daily activity
    I get up at 05.00 a’clock and than I take a bath and pray.
    After that I breakfast before goes to school and prepare my uniform and my bag, than I goes school by buss, and arrive at 07.00 a’clock. After that I study with my friend 01.oo a’clock than I comes home and I usually have Lunch. And take a rest. After that I pray and help my mother to cleaning home. Than I take bath and dinner. I usually watches TV and study after that I go to bet at 09.00 a’clock.

  2. Daily Activity

    I want to tell about my daily activity
    I get up at 05.00 a’clock and than I take a bath and pray.
    After that I breakfast before goes to school and prepare my uniform and my bag, than I goes school by buss, and arrive at 07.00 a’clock. After that I study with my friend 01.oo a’clock than I comes home and I usually have Lunch. And take a rest. After that I pray and help my mother to cleaning home. Than I take bath and dinner. I usually watches TV and study after that I go to bet at 09.00 a’clock.

    Daily Activity

    I want to tell about my daily activity
    I get up at 05.00 a’clock and than I take a bath and pray.
    After that I breakfast before goes to school and prepare my uniform and my bag, than I goes school by buss, and arrive at 07.00 a’clock. After that I study with my friend 01.oo a’clock than I comes home and I usually have Lunch. And take a rest. After that I pray and help my mother to cleaning home. Than I take bath and dinner. I usually watches TV and study after that I go to bet at 09.00 a’clock.

  3. Hello all..
    My name is Dona
    I want to tell you abaut my daily activity.

    Every day I get up at 05.30 o’clock. Then I do subuh pray. After that I go to bath room for take a bath. At 06.30 o’clock I breakfast. Then I go to school at 06.45 o’clock. I arrive in the school at 06.55. the start study at 07.00 o’clock. and the finish study at 13.30 o’clock. then I back to home. I arrive in the home at 14.00 o’clock. next I pray zduhur. Then I have lunch. After that I to play with my cat until at 16.00 o’clock. than I take a bath. After that I pray ashar. At 18.00 o’clock I pray mahrib. After that I have dinner because I hungry. Next, I study until at 20.00 o’clock. Then I watching tv at until at 21.00 o’clock. After that I go to bedroom and I ready to sleep.
    Finish.
    And thank for your has read.

  4. carane pye

    • pripun

  5. long time ago I bought snacks in a small shop, I buy food at a price of Rp 500 and then I eat the food that suddenly the words “you get the car ” I was surprised and very happy, but it’s just a sham. I am very sad hear it. and until now I gapernah to stall again

    by; novan x pm 2

  6. One day my bike broke down when going off to school. I’m so confused, I think of home alright and turns amid the trip suddenly broke down, after I check my bike ran out of fuel, luckily there was a girl came up to me offered me to ride with him to buy fuel ago I received the offer and finally the motor I could live again, although late for school. it was a very memorable day

    by:panca qois f x pm 2

  7. Dear Liza Kurnia,
    Please, come to singing class on saturday, February 6 2016 in our campus at 09.00 a.m. until 12.00 p.m. Please come on time, I will wait for you!

    Nadila Windy Afi F.


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