A prefix is a word-part that is added in the beginning of a word.

  • Negative Prefixes

Ø  -un

attractive                                unattractive

clean                                         unclean

comfortable                              uncomfortable

complicated                              uncomplicated

fortunate                                 unfortunate

generous                                   ungenerous

grateful                                    ungrateful

healthy                                     unhealthy

interesting                               uninteresting

kind                                          unkind

lawful                                       unlawful

lucky                                         unlucky

pleasant                                    unpleasant

real                                          unreal

safe                                         unsafe

selfish                                      unselfish

true                                         untrue

Ø  -dis


advantage                                 disadvantage

belief                                       disbelief

comfort                                    discomfort

courtesy                                   discourtesy

favor                                        disfavor

honor                                        dishonor

like                                           dislike

loyalty                                      disloyalty

obedience                                 disobedience

pleasure                                   displeasure

repair                                       disrepair

respect                                    disrespect

taste                                        distaste

trust                                        distrust

use                                           disuse


agree                                       disagree

allow                                         disallow

appear                                      disappear

arm                                          disarm

assemble                                  disassemble

associate                                  disassociate

believe                                     disbelieve

claim                                         disclaim

connect                                     disconnect

continue                                    discontinue

encourage                                 discourage

like                                           dislike

locate                                       dislocate

obey                                         disobey

please                                       displease

possess                                    dispossess

prove                                        disprove

Ø  -in, -im, -il, -ir

active                                       inactive

capable                                     incapable

complete                                   incomplete

constant                                   inconstant

curious                                     incurious

definite                                    indefinite

distinct                                    indistinct

exact                                        inexact

expert                                      inexpert

glorious                                    inglorious

human                                       inhuman

organic                                     inorganic

secure                                      insecure

visible                                      invisible

mature                                        immature

moderate                                    immoderate

mortal                                         immortal

moveable                                     immoveable

patient                                       impatient

perfect                                       imperfect

possible                                      impossible

probable                                     improbable

proper                                        improper

pure                                            impure

rational                                     irrational

regular                                     irregular

religious                                   irreligious

responsible                               irresponsible

legal                                            illegal

licit                                            illicit

legible                                        illegible


balance                                     imbalance

justice                                      injustice

Ø  -non

alcoholic                                    nonalcoholic

cooperation                               noncooperation (no cooperation)

political                                    nonpolitical

poisonous                                  nonpoisonous

stop                                         nonstop

violent                                      nonviolent

Ø  -mis


behave                                     misbehave

direct                                       misdirect

inform                                      misinform

interpret                                  misinterpret

judge                                        misjudge

lead                                          mislead

place                                        misplace

print                                        misprint

read                                         misread

spell                                         misspell

treat                                        mistreat

understand                               misunderstand

use                                           misuse


alliance                                     misalliance

behavior                                   misbehavior

chance                                      mischance

conduct                                     misconduct

fit                                            misfit

fortune                                     misfortune

exercises :

using one of the prefixes in this lesson ( un-, dis-, in-, non-, mis-), give the word that opposite in meaning to each of those on the list that follows.

1.     active

2.    belief

3.    believe

4.    attractive

5.    loyal

6.    honest

7.    true

8.    visible

9.    please

10. pleasure

11.  convenient

12. comfort

13. comfortable

14. fortune

15. fortunately



  • Prefix that form verbs

Ø  en-  (em-)

able                                          enable

bitter                                      embitter

body                                         embody

camp                                         encamp

circle                                        encircle

dear                                         endear

force                                        enforce

large                                        enlarge

noble                                        ennoble

power                                       empower

purple                                       empurple

rage                                         enrage

rich                                          enrich

slave                                         enslave

tangle                                       entangle

other prefixes with various meanings.

prefix meaning examples
ante- before, preceding antedate, antecedent
Anti- against Antiwar, antigovernment
Circum- around circumnavigate
Co- Together, joint Co-author, coeducation
Contra- against contraindicate
Ex- former Ex-member, ex-president
Ex- Out of Export
In- In, into indoors
Inter- between International, interdepartmental
Intra- within Intradepartmental
Mal- Bad, wrong Malfunction, malpractice
Multi- many Multicolored
Poly- many Polyglot
Post- After, later Postwar, postgraduate
Pre- Before, earlier Prewar, prehistory
Pro- In favor of Prowar, proadministration
Re- again Refill, rewrite
Sub- Under, below Subnormal, subhuman
Super- Above, over Superman, supernatural
Trans- Through, across Transcontinental
Mono- Alone, one Monogamy, monolingual
Fore- Before, in front foredoom

Exercises :

Give words with the following meaning using prefixes !

1.     against malaria

2.    below standard

3.    former chairman

4.    do again

5.    between nations

6.    having many wives

7.    speaking many languages

8.    tell something before it happens

9.    faulty formation

10. before wedding

Noun Forming Suffixes

Ø  -tion

appreciate                                     appreciation

celebrate                                      celebration

communicate                                  communication

complete                                       completion

construct                                      construction

constitute                                     constitution

contribute                                     contribution

concentrate                                   concentration

cooperate                                      cooperation

create                                           creation

decorate                                       decoration

delegate                                        delegation

estimate                                       estimation

execute                                         execution

exhibit                                          exhibition

graduate                                       graduation

federate                                       federation

generate                                       generation

institute                                       institution

instruct                                         instruction

legislate                                        legislation

motivate                                        motivation

react                                             reaction

regulate                                        regulation

relate                                            relation

violate                                           violation

Ø  -ation

adapt                                            adaptation

administer                                     administration

condense                                       condensation

inspire                                          inspiration

occupy                                           occupation

reform                                          reformation

restore                                         restoration

tempt                                            temptation

transport                                      transportation

Ø  -ition

compete                                        competition

depose                                          deposition

dispose                                          disposition

expose                                          exposition

propose                                         proposition

Ø  -ification

amplify                                          amplification

beautify                                        beautification

certify                                          certification

classify                                         classification

clarify                                           clarification

identify                                         identification

notify                                            notification

qualify                                           qualification

ratify                                            ratification


1.     if they win the game they will celebrate it, and I will come to their … party

2.    the long walk exhausted me. I noticed my … right away.

3.    this is the latest edition of the book. I … it and made some additions from the new materials.

4.    he defined that word for me. And his .. was correct.

5.    your love is my inspiration. Your love … me to make a poem.

6.    you must concentrate to learn English. The result of your… will appear soon.

7.    the new regulation has published. They will … the manufacture of drugs.

8.    Janet is tempted  to lose her weight, she doesn’t yield to the …

9.    we must alter our plans because of the rainy season, I hope the … is okay

10. mom instructed me to study and I obey her …

Suffixes That Form Verbs

Ø  -ize

It combines with many noun and adjective.


commercial                                         commercialize

crystal                                               crystallize

economy                                             economize

harmony                                             harmonize

sympathy                                            sympathize

terror                                                terrorize

moisture                                            moisturize

Ø  -ate

captive                                               captivate

facility                                               facilitate

luxury                                                 luxuriate

motive                                                motivate

origin                                                 originate

Ø  -ify

beauty                                               beautify

class                                                  classify

fort                                                   fortify

person                                                personify

horror                                                horrify

terror                                                terrify

exercise :

A.   Fill in the blanks with the words chosen from the list.

beautify conflict crystallize digest discharge
dramatize horrify import invigorate rebel

1. We were so upset on hearing  his dreadful stories about the war and I think his

story will … you too.

2. The battle of Bharatayuda was a major … in the Mahabharata war.

3. I don’t have time to read your whole letter. My secretary will make a … for me.

4. A famous singer just like Charlie van Houten often tends to … situations in his

private live.

5. Young people often go through a period when they … against their parents.

6. This bright sunny day makes John feel like going out and taking exercise.  He

says they … him.

7. The streets are very pretty now. The city government has … them by planting


8. If a teacher has served well, he leaves the school services with an honorable …

9. That country imports steel, wheat and manufactured products. What are some

of its other …?

10. When the water in a salt solution evaporates, the salt … and remains behind.

B.    Fill in the blank with the noun or verb related to the italicized word.

1.     The Sujono have very little money so they practice economy in all their

expenditures. They … on their food, clothes and housing.

2.  She sympathized with all of his misfortunes and he was very grateful for her …

3.  We wish to facilitate his business and so we are giving him …

4.  We have divided these butterflies into different classes. Tomorrow we will …


5.  The disappearance of Michael Jackson has mystified everyone. His fate is a

real …

Suffixes That Form Nouns

Ø  -ness

adjective                                            noun

aware                                                 awareness

loud                                                    loudness

sad                                                     sadness

ready                                                 readiness

serious                                               seriousness

sharp                                                 sharpness

shy                                                     shyness

silly                                                    silliness

ugly                                                    ugliness

weak                                                  weakness

Ø  -ity

acid                                                    acidity

national                                              nationality

secure                                                security

sensitive                                            sensitivity

fatal                                                  fatality

legal                                                   legality

personal                                             personality

universal                                            universality

capable                                              capability

possible                                             possibility

probable                                            probability

Ø  -t  to  -ce

abundant                                            abundance

convenient                                          convenience

evident                                              evidence

innocent                                             innocence

intelligent                                          intelligence

resident                                             residence

abundance                            acidity                          brevity

evidence                              silliness                        keenness

legality                                steepness                     supremacy

weakness                             loudness                        mentality

sobriety                              captivity                       enormity

1. his manner was very bad, he was rude to others. His … of his behavior

offended everyone.

2. the wild bird was caught and put in a cage, but it would not sing in …

3. the country has the strongest navy in the world, and because of his naval

…, it was able to build a big empire.

4. the wine is very sour, its … makes it almost unfit to drink.

5. the knife was very sharp. The … of its blade made it easy to use.

Suffixes That Form Adjectives and Verbs

Ø       -ive

verb                               adjective

communicate                    communicative

compare                          comparative

compete                          competitive

cooperate                       cooperative

decorate                         decorative

digest                             digestive

form                               formative

protect                           protective

defend                            defensive

exceed                            excessive

offend                            offensive

respond                           responsive

Ø       -able

desire                             desirable

drink                               drinkable

love                                 loveable

read                                readable

recognize                        recognizable

wash                               washable

avail                                available

depend                            dependable

pay                                 payable

remark                            remarkable

suit                                 suitable

value                               valuable

Ø       -ible

adjective                        meaning

comprehensible               capable of being understood

edible                             capable of being eaten

credible                          capable of being believed

divisible                          capable of being divided

feasible                          capable of being done

legible                            capable of being read

visible                             capable of being seen

Ø       -ant  and  -ent

depend                            dependent

differ                             different

please                             pleasant

suffice                            sufficient

abound                            abundant

defy                                defiant

Ø       -en  (to make / become )

adjective                        verb

black                               blacken

dark                                darken

fast                                fasten

moist                              moisten

sharp                              sharpen

quick                               quicken

attainable                                 clarify                        competitive

excessive                                 exhaustive                 immortalize

moisten                                    relative                      sufficient

  1. these instructions are not clear. Paijo can … them for us.
  2. a reasonable profit is good , but I think 75% is …
  3. Leonardo da Vinci tried to … the beauty of Mona Lisa
  4. the students in that class are always struggling to see who can get the best  grade. It is a very   … class.
  5. I bought a small turkey for six guests. I hope it will be …

Suffixes That Form Adjectives


Ø  -al, -ial

noun                                                adjective

agriculture                                           agricultural

bride                                                    bridal

globe                                                    …

emotion                                                …

incident                                                …

commerce                                             …

instrument                                            …

magic                                                    …

structure                                             …

universe                                               …

president                                             presidential

resident                                               …

province                                               …

except :   intellect-intellectual         spirit-spiritual

Ø  -ic, -ical (have almost the same meaning)

poetic                                                   poetical

economic                                               …

politic                                                   …

Ø  Adjectives of nationality

ü  -(i) an

Asia                                                 Asian

Australia                                         Australian

Russia                                              Russian

Belgium                                            Belgian

Iran Iranian

Jordan Jordanian

Italy Italian

Germany                                          German

Mexico                                             Mexican

Tibet                                               Tibetan

ü  -ish

Place-name                                  adjective                             noun

Britain                                        British                                 Briton, British

Denmark                                     Danish                                 Dane

Finland                                        Finnish                                 Finn

Ireland                                       Irish                                   Irishman, woman

Spain                                          Spanish                                Spaniard

Sweden                                       Swedish                               Swede

Turkey                                        Turkish                                Turk

Scotland                                      Scottish                              Scot

Poland                                         Polish                                   Pole

Sometimes the adjective is derived from the  noun naming a member of a nation or social group ;

noun                                    adjective

Frank                                   Frankish

Jew                                     Jewish

Kurd                                    Kurdish

ü  -ese

Burma                                    Burmese

China                                      Chinese

Congo                                     Congolese

Japan                                     Japanese

Lebanon                                  Lebanese

Portugal                                 Portuguese

Vietnam                                  Vietnamese

ü  -ic

Arab                                      Arabic

Iceland                                   Icelandic

ü  -i

Iraq                                       Iraqi

Israel                                    Israeli

Somalia                                  Somali

Kuwait                                    Kuwaiti

Yemen                                    Yemeni

ü  Irregular forms

country name                   adjective                      noun of nationality

Cyprus                            Cypriot                         Cypriot

Czechoslovakia                Czechoslovakian            Czechoslovakian

Czech                           Czech

France                            French                          Frenchman, woman

Greece                            Greek                           Greek

Holland                            Dutch                           Dutchman, woman

Laos                                Lao, Laotian                  Lao, Laotian

Thailand                          Thai                             Thai

Switzerland                    Swiss                           Swiss

The Philippines                Philippine                      Filipino

economic 1. the president has many … matters to consider this session


tragic 2. the death of the president was the most … even of the year


logic 3. the boy was lying, his explanation wasn’t …


statistic 4. … evidence is not always convincing.


elliptic 5. planets follow … orbits around the sun.


fill in the blanks in the pattern sentences, using each of the countries named bellow.

Example : America

That man is from …                                      that man is from America

He’s an …                                                     he’s an American

1.     Sweden

2.    Egypt

3.    Spain

4.    Mexico

5.    argentine

MORE Suffixes That Form Adjectives


  • -y

it is added to  a great many nouns  and verbs  of one syllable.

noun adjective

boss                                                                                         bossy

breeze                                                                                       breezy

chill                                                                                           chilly

foam                                                                                         foamy

lump                                                                                         lumpy

mist                                                                                          misty

mood                                                                                        moody

frost                                                                                         frosty

pearl                                                                                         pearly

salt                                                                                           salty

scare                                                                                        scary

swamp                                                                                      swampy

worm                                                                                        wormy

rock                                                                                          rocky

pepper                                                                                      peppery

  • -ary

discipline                                                                                   disciplinary

fragment                                                                                   fragmentary

legend                                                                                       legendary

planet                                                                                        planetary

prime                                                                                        primary

vision                                                                                        visionary

  • -ed

forest                                                                                        forested

point                                                                                         pointed

talent                                                                                        talented

  • -ly

noun                                                                                         adjective

brother                                                                                      brotherly

death                                                                                        deathly

friend                                                                                        friendly

ghost                                                                                        ghostly

father                                                                                        fatherly

mother                                                                                      motherly

sister                                                                                        sisterly

woman                                                                                      womanly

world                                                                                        worldly

the following words in –ly are used as both adjectives and adverbs.

noun                                                                                         adjective or adverb

hour                                                                                          hourly

day                                                                                           daily

week                                                                                         weekly

moth                                                                                         monthly

year                                                                                          yearly

  • -ar

circle                                                                                        circular

consul                                                                                       consular

muscle                                                                                      muscular

tube                                                                                          tubular

globe                                                                                         globular

molecule                                                                                    molecular

  • -full   and  -less

noun                                                     -ful adjective                                                  -less adjective

care                                                      careful                                                          careless

cheer                                                    cheerful                                                         cheerless

pain                                                      painful                                                           painless

mercy                                                   merciful                                                         merciless

use                                                       useful                                                            useless

end                                                       –                                                                   endless

tree                                                      –                                                                   treeless

star                                                      –                                                                   starless

wind                                                      –                                                                   windless

point                                                     –                                                                   pointless

dread                                                    dreadful                                                         –

hate                                                      hateful                                                           –

resource                                               resourceful                                                    –

  • -ous

adventure                                                                                  adventurous

ceremony                                                                                  ceremonious

danger                                                                                      dangerous

fury                                                                                           furious

glory                                                                                         glorious

humor                                                                                       humorous

marvel                                                                                       marvelous

monster                                                                                    monstrous

odor                                                                                          odorous

nerve                                                                                        nervous

luxury                                                                                        luxurious

grace                                                                                        gracious

industry                                                                                     industrious

  • -ic

angel                                                                                         angelic

economy                                                                                    economic

organ                                                                                        organic

romance                                                                                    romantic

harmony                                                                                    harmonic

comedy                                                                                     comic

energy                                                                                       energetic

tragedy                                                                                      tragic

science                                                                                     scientific

democracy                                                                                 democratic

  • -ish

boy                                                                                           boyish

child                                                                                          childish

fool                                                                                           foolish

girl                                                                                            girlish

style                                                                                          stylish

monk                                                                                         monkish

black                                                                                         blackish

blue                                                                                          bluish

yellow                                                                                        yellowish

red                                                                                           reddish


  1. a pencil without a point
  2. an action that is useless
  3. a thing that must be pointed out


  1. a person who is happy and always make others happy
  2. a room that is pleasant to be
  3. a crowd that cheers a lot

C. fearful

  1. a thing that is frightening
  2. a person who is afraid
  3. something that is extreme, excessive

D. breathless

  1. somebody who has difficulty in breathing
  2. somebody who is breathing rapidly
  3. something that is so quite you could hear people breathless

fearless                                             capacious                                          careless

circuitous                                          faithless                                            characteristic

rebellious                                           pointless                                            cheerful

painless                                             disgraceful                                         endless


  1. it’s ….. of that breed of dog to have short legs and long ears.
  2. Painem seems to get tired. His energy is …
  3. it’s …. to attempt to carry water in a basket
  4. it’s … for a large city not to have good school for its children.
  5. “this examination is quite … “, said Sastro. “You won’t feel a thing”.


    One day her right in the afternoon me and my friends went for a walk to drive. When we pass through the plaza, just down the road we see there are 2 beautiful girl who was walking, it seems they’ve been finished jogging. Apparently one of my friends there who recognize from one of these girls. Eventually I and my friends agreed to nyamperin them. One of my friends offered them to join, the girls agreed. In the car my friends met me at the same two girls but I just do not acquaintances, maybe I’m cool with them, that’s me.
    Travel in up to Kartini beach, there we want to follow my friends who were maen katini beach ball on the ground to join together. complete already my friends, and the journey was a small café tongkrongan be continued towards us. On the way one of my friends introduced me to these girls, and eventually we became acquainted.
    Arriving at the place of our tongkrongan, tips, jokes and jokes do not forget to order a drink. turns out one of my friends there who have not been acquainted with these girls, the chance that they were all acquainted.
    A few minutes later the evening call to prayer rang out time for us to go home. Me and my friends had rushed home not forget these girls. They also deliver until the gate I was not far from his home.
    After escort girls are, on the road one of my friends give the girls phone number is. At first I did not want to, but eventually I want to add calculated for a friend.
    When I got home, I sent a short message to these girls. It turns out that one of the girls responded well with me. And I continued close to one of these girls named Willis. Continued getting closer, Willis invited me to forge a closer relationship, but he also said if he already has a lover. I say live a little.
    his initial feeling I was not there anything at Willis, but gradually I began to have the same feeling he had. Perhaps because of the habit of affection arose suddenly. Day in and day out feel my love grew stronger, I began to hope mnjadi the first to Wilis. And finally one day my hopes into reality. her sense of fun my wishes can come true.
    My relationship continues today, do not feel a year more I related at Wilis. though the relationship never stopped me on the street for some reason, it is not a problem for me. My compassion is greater than my pain, sometimes I think about the heartache I’ve felt but all of that I cover with my affection my dengannya.Pernah Wilis try to find a replacement, but all in vain I’m finally back to the Wilis again and that many times. Until now my relationship together Wilis increasingly serious and the days I lived with him. Hopefully my relationship with Willis continues well.

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